|hybrid rice: a high yielding technology that produce a good quality of rice.|
The Philippine rice research institute, created PHILRICE to help develop high yielding technologies so that the farmers can produce enough of rice for all the Filipinos. Hybrid rice was one of their programs.it is one of the best way in to improve the rice production here in the Philippines.
What is hybrid rice?
According to Mr. Carmelo D. Oren, Supervising Agriculturist Provincial Agriculture Office, hybrid rice is the direct product of two genetically different parents also referred to as the F1.
In hybrids, the positive qualities of both parents are combined resulting in a phenomenon called “hybrid vigor or heterosis”, where young seedlings are highly vigorous and the mature plant has better reproductive characteristics, factors that result in higher yields than normal rice also know to as INBRED RICE.
The hybrid rice is different from inbred rice. The rice plants we see in farmers’ fields today and all traditional varieties are all inbred rices. Normally, each rice flower of inbred rice contains both male and female organs thus allowing the plant to reproduce itself through self pollination or inbreeding, this means you can use grains harvested from an inbred crop as seeds for the next seasons planting.
According to Mr. Carmelo D. Oren, hybrid rice, is a product of two parent, new seeds must always be produced for planting the next season through cross-pollination. Two superior parents, one made female by removing the male part or making it sterile and the other serves as the male parent, are crossed to get their best characteristics and combine them in hybrid plant. Pollination is done by natural and chemical means. The seeds harvested from the hybrid plant cannot be used for planting the following season because hybrid vigor is lost resulting in lower yields and non-uniform crop stands.
There are different terms used to differentiate varieties from traditional varieties: (1) HYVs (high-yielding varieties), (2) MRVs (modern rice varieties), (3) conventional varieties, and NPT( new plant type). Traditional varieties are tall and lodge easily. These are low-yielders, producing from 40-50 cavans/ha, and can be grown once a year since they take 5 to 6 months to mature. Most are photoperiodic or photosensitive. They have low-tiller number, are often to susceptible to insect pest and disease, and grains may shatter easily. Many are aromatic and have good taste or eating quality.
The terms HYVs, MRVs and conventional varieties all mean the same and may be used interchangeably. These varieties are short or semi-dwarf, mature in about 4 months or less, non-photoperiodic making it possible to plant a second or third crop, high yielding, resistant to insect pest and diseases, responsive to N fertilization, heavy-tillering, and well-suited to irrigated areas.
NPT or super rice is a new variety designed for future. Its target yield 12 tons/hectare will be achieved through a dramatic transformation of rice plant architecture: reduced number of tillers, greater number of grains per panicle, heavier grain weight per panicle, longer and extensive root system, more efficient user of water and nutrients, and greater resistance to insect pest and diseases. However, this type of variety is still being developed and improved and will not be available to farmers in the immediate future.
Tradition varieties, HYVs, MRVs, Conventional varieties and NPTs or super rice of the future, however, share one thing in common: they are self-pollinated.
Hybrid rice varieties
There are three hybrid rice that a farmer can plant today:
- PSB Rc26H or MAGAT. The magat hybrid bested PSBRc4 by 17% and IR50 by 36% during the dry season. This is primarily recommended in other places although it performed well in ILOILO during the dry season.
Magat has an average yield of 5.7 tons/ha, grows to a height of 88cm and with a maturity of 110 days. Its highest yield was recorded in Nueva Ecija at 11.8t/hectare. it is resistant to blast and has intermediate reaction to bacterial leaf blight, rice tungro virus, yellow stem borer, green leafhopper and brown plant hoppers biotypes 1, 2, and 3. It has high amylase content, or hard when cooked.
- PSB Rc72H or MESTIZO. It has a yield average of 6.3tons/ hectare during the dry season, grows to a height of 97cm with growth duration of 123 days. A high yield of 11.4tons/hectare was attained in Nueva Ecija during the 1997 DS. This medium maturing hybrid rice grows well in other places especially in Iloilo. It has better eating quality with lower amylase, which means that it is soft when cooked or better in eating quality than IR64.
- PSB Rc76H or PANAY. This hybrid gave superior performance at specific locations: Camarines Sur, Laguna and Bukidnon with an Average yield of 5.2t/ha during the dry season and 4.7t/ha during the wet season. Maturity is early at 100 days and height is 102cm. it is resistant to blast and has intermediate reaction to bacterial leaf blight and sheath blight. It has amylase content, or hard when cooked.
Hybrid rice is grown much like conventional varieties except that requires greater attention in seedling propagation. Seedlings must be healthy and their roots must be fully developed and should remain intact in order to minimize transplanting shock. This allows the hybrid rice variety to fully express its “hybrid vigor” at early vegetative growth, leading to increased number of spikelets. This means that hybrid rices have greater yield conversation using the same inputs as with the usual varieties.
The significant shifts from farmers’ usual practices include:
- Use of new F1 seeds every planting season, that is, they cannot use their harvest seeds.
- Use of only 20kg seeds per hectare (farmers use from 80 to 120 kg seeds per hectare).
- Application of 10 to 15 cavans farm wastes and organic materials in the seedbed to make the soil loose and friable. This is to facilitate seedling pulling while keeping roots of seedlings intact.
- Spare seedling of 50gm per square meter or a total of 20 kg in 400square meter seedbed, and
- Transplanting of 1 seedling per hill (farmers transplant 3 to 5 seedlings per hill).
Farmers can’t replant harvested seeds from hybrid rice because if the grain harvested from a hybrid rice crop is used as seeds for planting the following season, the result of the crop will exhibit segregation for traits such as height and flowering date will not be uniform. To derive the benefits of high yield and uniform stands, the farmer must invest in new seeds for every season. Unlike conventional variety that can use the grains they harvested from their existing crop as seeds for planting the following season.
Cost in growing hybrid rice.
Growing of hybrid rice can cost P120 per kilogram, since farmers need only 20kg of seeds that will cost P2,400 or about the same as what the farmers currently use, 3 to 4 cavans of 40 kg certified seeds at P700 per cavan, or P2,100 to 2,800. The additional cost will be on the use of organic fertilizer and other inputs that are needed in grow hybrid rice.
Profit from Hybrid Rice.
At a conservative yield of 5 tons per hectare which is equivalent to 110 cavans of palay at 50kg/cavan, a farmer gets a net return of P20,744.00 per hectare.
In producing hybrid seeds to be used by farms offer new income opportunities for seed growers, rural farm hand and women. Based on actual surveys, the average cost producing hybrid seeds is P33, 492. per hectare on-farm and P45, 842 on research stations. If a yield of one ton is attained, a hybrid seeds producer can get a net profit of P92, 158/hectare/season. The higher the seed yield attained the greater the profit.
Mestizo 1, 3, 7, and 9 was originally developed by our own scientist here in Philippines. The target per hybrid in Iloilo province is 2000 hectares this 2013. That’s why they keep on promoting hybrid rice production to every rice farmers. Farmers’ was given 900 hybrid rice seed per hectare.
Hybrid rice is one of the key to technologies that can make the country self-sufficient in rice. The Iloilo region depends to other region like Mindanao on producing hybrid rice. The good quality of hybrid rice will depend on farmers’ proper management:
- Land preparation,
- Water management, it is important to know exactly the needs of water level before planting and in time of harvest season.
- Important to know the amount of fertilizer to every different varieties.
- Control weeds before applying fertilizers.
- Too much fertilizer in the soil could cause lodging of plants or increased incidence of diseases.
According to Mr. Carmelo D. Oren, Supervising Agriculturist Provincial Agriculture Office, In the near future, Province of Iloilo wanted to be the center of rice production in the Philippines to cater the needs of rice not only in the Philippines but also to the other Asian country and US. The Philippines’ hybrid rice program is directly supported by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Republic of china (PROC), and the Rockefeller Foundation, Inc. (RF), and indirectly by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
Mr. Carmelo D. Oren, Supervising Agriculturist, Provincial Agriculture Office, Provincial Capitol, Iloilo City.
RAFIDS DA RFU-6, 2001, TEKNOLOHIYA SA HYBRID RICE, Department of Agriculture-RFU6, ILOILO CITY.